Traditional Janae Colours, Planets and Metals

Traditional Janae Colours, Planets and Metals

‘A type of symbolism which can be traced to sources much more ancient than any we have for alchemy is the association of metals with the
planets’ – F .Sherwood Taylor, Origins of Greek Alchemy, Ambix I p46.
from The Metal-Planet Affinities By Nick Kollerstrom

“Alchemy itself is most often described as the ancient tradition of sacred chemistry by which one discovers the truth about the nature, both
spiritual and temporal, of reality, its structure, laws and functions.”


Prior to the 19th century there were only 7 recognised metals. Lists linking these with the planets emerge from around the 1st century BC, with the traditional rulerships becoming obviously widespread around the 7th century AD. (1)


In classical antiquity, the sacred Seven Luminaries or what we now call the Seven Classical Planets are the seven non-fixed objects visible in the sky with the naked-eye: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. (2)


Sol gold is, and
Luna silver we declare,
Mars yron,
Mercurie is quyksilver,
Saturnus leed,
and Jupiter is tyn,
And Venus coper,
by my fathers kyn

(Chaucer 1386) (3)


Starting from this circle of the seven days of the week and selecting alternately leads to the ancient, Ptolemaic ordering of the planets. This sequence starts from the Moon, as the sphere closest to the Earth, and ends with Saturn as the furthest of the seven. We saw how this refers to their speeds of motion across the sky, but also to the order of valencies of their corresponding metals, as well as their physical

Old books on astronomy used to describe this sevenfold transform, from the Days of Creation sequence, i.e. the seven days of the week, to the old ordering of the planets. They called it, the ‘Hebdomad’ (4).

Then, early in the twentieth century, the amazing third step of this argument was discerned (5). Selecting every third step around the circle creates a star-heptagon, which gives the ordering by atomic weight or atomic number of the metals! (N.B. This isn’t the same as density). It starts from iron, as having the lowest atomic weight of the classical seven.

A sevenfold pattern or mandala starts from the names of sky-gods linked to the days of the week, and then contracts into sequences of physical and chemical properties of the metals. Pelikan seems to have been the first to describe these heptagon-patterns, … In a beautiful and mysterious manner, they link together the concepts of modern chemistry and ancient traditions of the cosmos. From a totally unexpected source, we receive confirmation that there is indeed something special about the ‘seven metals’ known to classical antiquity.

One American academician, Derek de Solla Price (6), was impressed by the fact that the same geometrical figure, the heptagram, accounted for both the order of the planetary week, and the relationship between the atomic weights of the seven metals and the revolutionary period of their respective planets. He was moved to write: ‘It seems quite plausible that much of astrological theory may rest on just such a basis of figurate rationality rather than upon empirical or special omen lore. In this sense astrology … developed on a very rational basis, with a figurative theory and the associated symbolism at its centre.’




Jana: Madria Theia.
Her robe colour(s) are the alchemical metallic colour(s) of orange and gold.

(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)

Gold Ore
Roasted Gold Ore

Sun & Gold

Madria Theia’s Orange Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

In ancient Egypt artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses. It was also used later by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts. Pigments were also made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire. Because of its yellow-orange colour, it was also a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, in both China and the West.

Before the late 15th century, the colour orange existed in Europe, but without the name; it was simply called yellow-red. Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which gradually became part of several European languages: “naranja” in Spanish, “laranja” in Portuguese, and “orange” in English.

In Confucianism, the religion and philosophy of ancient China, orange was the colour of transformation. In China and India, the colour took its name not from the orange fruit, but from saffron, the finest and most expensive dye in Asia. According to Confucianism, existence was governed by the interaction of the male active principle, the yang, and the female passive principle, the yin. Yellow was the colour of perfection and nobility; red was the colour of happiness and power. Yellow and red were compared to light and fire, spirituality and sensuality, seemingly
opposite but really complementary. Out of the interaction between the two came orange, the colour of transformation. (8)

Hinduism and Buddhism
A wide variety of colours, ranging from a slightly orange yellow to a deep orange red, all simply called saffron, are closely associated with Hinduism and Buddhism, and are commonly worn by monks and holy men across Asia.
In Buddhism orange (or more precisely saffron) was the colour of illumination, the highest state of perfection. (9)
Orange, or more specifically deep saffron, is the most sacred colour of Hinduism.


Lady Candre

Jana: Madria Candra.
Her robe colour(s) are the alchemical metallic colour(s) of violet and silver.

(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)

Moon & Silver

Madria Candra’s Violet Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

During the Middle Ages violet was worn by bishops and university professors and was often used in art as the colour of the robes of the Virgin Mary. In Chinese painting, the colour violet represents the harmony of the universe because it is a combination of red and blue (Yin and yang respectively). (10) In Hinduism and Buddhism violet is associated with the Crown Chakra.[11]


Lady Tethys

Jana: Madria Grace.
Her robe colour(s) are the alchemical metallic colour(s) of green and pink, because, the earthly element copper is both green (oxidized pennies) and pink (shiny pennies). Also, new plant life in the Spring is green [and new flowers may be pink, or Aurora Sunrise, Rainbow Colours]. (50)
(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)

Venus & Copper

The seasonal element colour of Spring, which Madria Grace governs, is blue, because the earthly element water is blue [icebergs]. Also, Grace is like spring rain showers [Heavenly Blue Waters] of Blessings upon the Earth. (Note: A body of water may appear green, due to the green plant life in it). (50)

Madria Grace’s Blue Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

The word green comes from the Middle English and Old English word grene, which, like the German word grün, has the same root as the words grass and grow. (12) Ultimately from a PIE root *ghre- “to grow”, and root-cognate with grass and to grow. (13) The first recorded use of the word as a colour term in Old English dates to ca. AD 700. (14)
Latin with viridis also has a genuine and widely used term for “green”. Ancient Greek also had a term for yellowish, pale green – χλωρός, chloros (cf. the colour of chlorine), cognate with χλοερός “verdant” and χλόη “the green of new growth”.
The Turkic languages also have jašɨl “green” or “yellowish green”, compared to a Mongolian word for “meadow”. (15)

In Ancient Egypt, green was the symbol of regeneration and rebirth, and of the crops made possible by the annual flooding of the Nile. For painting on the walls of tombs or on papyrus, Egyptian artists used finely ground malachite, mined in the west Sinai and the eastern desert. For the ancient Egyptians, green had very positive associations. The hieroglyph for green represented a growing papyrus sprout, showing the close connection between green, vegetation, vigor and growth. In wall paintings, the ruler of the underworld, Osiris, was typically portrayed
with a green face, because green was the symbol of good health and rebirth. Palettes of green facial makeup, made with malachite, were found in tombs. It was worn by both the living and the dead, particularly around the eyes, to protect them from evil.

The Romans had a great appreciation for the colour green; it was the colour of Venus, the goddess of gardens, vegetables and vineyards.

Verdigris is made by placing a plate or blade of copper, brass or bronze, slightly warmed, into a vat of fermenting wine, leaving it there for several weeks, and then scraping off and drying the green powder that forms on the metal. The process of making verdigris was described in ancient times by Pliny. It was used by the Romans in the murals of Pompeii, and in Celtic medieval manuscripts as early as the 5th century AD.

Green earth is a natural pigment used since the time of the Roman Empire. It is composed of clay coloured by iron oxide, magnesium, aluminum silicate, or potassium. Large deposits were found in the South of France near Nice, and in Italy around Verona, on Cyprus, and in Bohemia. The clay was crushed, washed to remove impurities, then powdered. It was sometimes called Green of Verona. (16)

By the second century AD, the Romans were using green in paintings, mosaics and glass, and there were ten different words in Latin for varieties of green. (17)

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, green was the colour commonly associated with merchants, bankers and the gentry.

In China, green is associated with the east, with sunrise, and with life and growth. (18)

It is the historic colour of Islam, representing the lush vegetation of Paradise. It was the colour of the banner of Muhammad, and is found in the flags of nearly all Islamic countries.


Pink is a pale red colour that is named after a flower of the same name. (19)(20) pinks, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus. It was first used as a colour name in the late 17th century. (21)

In most European languages, pink is called rose or rosa, after the rose flower.

It is associated with innocence when combined with white.

The colour pink has been described in literature since ancient times. In the Odyssey, written in approximately 800BCE, Homer wrote “Then, when the child of morning, rosy-fingered dawn appeared…” (22) Roman poets also described the colour. Roseus is the Latin word meaning “rosy” or “pink.” Lucretius used the word to describe the dawn in his epic poem On the Nature of Things (De rerum natura). (23)

Pink is one of the most common colours of flowers; it serves to attract the insects and birds necessary for pollination and perhaps also to deter predators.

In Japan, pink is the colour most commonly associated with springtime due to the blooming cherry blossoms. (24)(25) This is different from surveys in the United States and Europe where green is the colour most associated with springtime.

Pink was not a common colour in the fashion of the Middle Ages; nobles usually preferred brighter reds, such as crimson. However, it did appear in women’s fashion, and in religious art. In the 13th and 14th century, in works by Cimabue and Duccio, the Christ child was sometimes portrayed dressed in pink, the colour associated with the body of Christ.
In the high Renaissance painting the Madonna of the Pinks by Raphael, the Christ child is presenting a pink flower to the Virgin Mary. The pink was a symbol of marriage, showing a spiritual marriage between the mother and child. (26)

The golden age of the colour pink was the Rococo Period (1720–1777) in the 18th century, when pastel colours became very fashionable in all the courts of Europe.

In 19th century England, pink ribbons or decorations were often worn by young boys; boys were simply considered small men, and while men in England wore red uniforms, boys wore pink. In fact the clothing for children in the 19th century was almost always white, since, before the invention of chemical dyes, clothing of any colour would quickly fade when washed in boiling water.

The transition to pink as a sexually differentiating colour for girls occurred gradually, through the selective process of the marketplace, in the 1930s and 40s. In the 1920s, some groups had been describing pink as a masculine colour, an equivalent of the red that was considered to be for men, but lighter for boys. But stores nonetheless found that people were increasingly choosing to buy pink for girls, and blue for boys, until this became an accepted norm in the 1940s. (27)(28)


The modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. (29)

Blue was a latecomer among colours used in art and decoration, as well as language and literature. (30)
Blue pigments were originally made from minerals such as lapis lazuli, cobalt and azurite, and blue dyes were made from plants; usually woad in Europe, and Indigofera tinctoria, or true indigo, in Asia and Africa.

The Romans also imported indigo dye, but blue was the colour of working class clothing; the nobles and rich wore white, black, red or violet.
Blue was considered the colour of mourning. It was also considered the colour of barbarians; Julius Caesar reported that the Celts and Germans dyed their faces blue to frighten their enemies, and tinted their hair blue when they grew old. (31)

Nonetheless, the Romans made extensive use of blue for decoration. According to Vitruvius, they made dark blue pigment from indigo, and imported Egyptian blue pigment. The walls of Roman villas in Pompeii had frescoes of brilliant blue skies, and blue pigments were found in the shops of colour merchants. (32) The Romans had many different words for varieties of blue, including caeruleus, caesius, glaucus, cyaneus, lividus, venetus, aerius, and ferreus, but two words, both of foreign origin, became the most enduring; blavus, from the Germanic word blau,
which eventually became bleu or blue; and azureus, from the Arabic word lazaward, which became azure. (33)

In the art and life of Europe during the early Middle Ages, blue played a minor role. The nobility wore red or purple, while only the poor wore blue clothing, coloured with poor-quality dyes made from the woad plant.

An important factor in the increased prestige of the colour blue in the 12th century was the veneration of the Virgin Mary, and a change in the colours used to depict her clothing. In earlier centuries her robes had usually been painted in sombre black, grey, violet, dark green or dark blue. In the 12th century the Roma Catholic Church dictated that painters in Italy (and the rest of Europe consequently) to paint the Virgin Mary with the new most expensive pigment imported from Asia; ultramarine. Blue became associated with holiness, humility and virtue.

Blue is associated with Christianity in general and Catholicism in particular, especially with the figure of the Virgin Mary. (34)(35)(36)

Blue in Hinduism: Many of the gods are depicted as having blue-coloured skin, particularly those associated with Vishnu, who is said to be the
preserver of the world and thus intimately connected to water.

Blue in Judaism: In the Torah, (37) the Israelites were commanded to put fringes, tzitzit, on the corners of their garments, and to weave within these fringes a “twisted thread of blue (tekhelet)”.(38) In ancient days, this blue thread was made from a dye extracted from a Mediterranean snail called the hilazon. Maimonides claimed that this blue was the colour of “the clear noonday sky”; Rashi, the colour of the evening sky. (39) According to several rabbinic sages, blue is the colour of God’s Glory. (40) Staring at this colour aids in mediation, bringing us a glimpse
of the “pavement of sapphire, like the very sky for purity”, which is a likeness of the Throne of God. (41) (The Hebrew word for glory.) Many items in the Mishkan, the portable sanctuary in the wilderness, such as the menorah, many of the vessels, and the Ark of the Covenant, were covered with blue cloth when transported from place to place. (42)

In the Islamic World, blue and turquoise tile traditionally decorates the facades and exteriors of mosques and other religious buildings

Blue had first become the high fashion colour of the wealthy and powerful in Europe in the 13th century, when it was worn by Louis IX of France, better known as Saint Louis (1214-1270). Wearing blue implied dignity and wealth, and blue clothing was restricted to the nobility. (43) However, blue was replaced by black as the power colour in the 14th century, when European princes, and then merchants and bankers, wanted to show their seriousness, dignity and devoutness (see Black).
Blue gradually returned to court fashion in the 17th century, as part of a palette of peacock-bright colours shown off in extremely elaborate costumes. The modern blue business suit has its roots in England in the middle of the 17th century. Following the London plague of 1665 and the London fire of 1666, King Charles II of England ordered that his courtiers wear simple coats, waistcoats and breeches, and the palette of colours became blue, grey, white and buff. Widely imitated, this style of men’s fashion became almost a uniform of the London merchant
class and the English country gentleman. (44)

In the early 1900s, blue was the colour for girls, since it had traditionally been the colour of the Virgin Mary in Western Art, while pink was for boys (as it was akin to the colour red, considered a masculine colour). (45)


Divine Lady Rosa

Jana: Madria Vicka.
Her robe colour is the alchemical metallic colour of red.

(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)

kidney or bubble hematite or haematite iron ore
hematite or haematite iron ore

Mars & Iron

The seasonal element colour of Summer, which Madria Vicka governs, is red, because the earthly element fire is red [the colder part of a flame because of incomplete combustion]. Some elements exhibit a red colour when burned: calcium, (in bones) for example, produces a brick-red flame when combusted. (46) Fire is often shown as red in art.

Madria Vicka’s Red Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colours used in prehistoric art.
In ancient Egypt, red was associated with life, health, and victory.
Roman generals had their bodies coloured red to celebrate victories.
Since red is the colour of blood, it has historically been associated with sacrifice, danger and courage.
Both the Greeks and the Hebrews considered red a symbol of love as well as sacrifice. (47)
Red is the traditional colour of warning and danger. In the Middle Ages, a red flag announced that the defenders of a town or castle would fight to defend it, and a red flag hoisted by a warship meant they would show no mercy to their enemy.
In China, red is the symbol of fire and the south (both south in general and Southern China specifically). It carries a largely positive connotation, being associated with courage, loyalty, honour, success, fortune, fertility, happiness, passion, and summer. (48)
Mars is called the Red Planet because of the reddish colour imparted to its surface by the abundant iron oxide present there. (49)



Jana: Madria Thema
Her robe colour(s) are the alchemical metallic colour(s) of blue and purple.
Her alchemical metallic colour is blue, because, the earthly element tin is blue [i.e. blue-gray]. (50)

(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)

Jupiter & Tin

The seasonal element colour of Autumn, which Madria Thema governs, is green, because Earth is green [like the new green plant life in the
Daughter’s Paradise of Avala, across the Western Sea]. (50)

Madria Thema’s Green Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

Purple first appeared in prehistoric art during the Neolithic era. The artists of Pech Merle cave and other Neolithic sites in France used sticks of manganese and hematite powder to draw and paint animals and the outlines of their own hands on the walls of their caves. These works have been dated to between 16,000 and 25,000 BC. (51)
Purple was the colour worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial colour worn by the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, and later by Roman Catholic bishops. Similarly in Japan, the colour is traditionally associated with the Emperor and aristocracy.
Word etymology from Greek πορφύρα (porphura),(52) name of the Tyrian purple dye manufactured in classical antiquity from a mucus secreted by the spiny dye-murex snail.

When you think of the popular image of a judge – decked out in purple, big wig, facing off hardened criminals – you’re thinking of a circuit judge. They sit in the Crown Court and County Courts, and specialised jurisdictions such as the Technology and Construction Court.

For criminal cases, circuit judges wear a violet and purple gown with a red sash and short wig.
Ceremonially, they wear purple robes with a purple trim and a full wig.



Jana: Madria Sage.
Her robe colour is the alchemical metallic colour of yellow (saffron).
(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)


Silica carbonate mercury ore vein

Mercury & Quicksilver

Madria Sage’s Yellow Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

Because it was widely available, Yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colours used in art; The Lascaux cave in France has a painting of a yellow horse 17,000 years old.
It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel-, as the words gold and yell; gʰel- means both bright and gleaming. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700. (53)
Yellow, as the colour of sunlight, is commonly associated with warmth. In English and many other languages, “brilliant” and “bright” mean intelligent. In Islam, the yellow colour of gold symbolizes wisdom. In medieval European symbolism, red symbolized passion, blue symbolized the spiritual, and yellow symbolized reason. In many European universities, yellow gowns and caps are worn by members of the faculty of physical and natural sciences, as yellow is the colour of reason and research. (54)


Rhea and the lion

Jana: Madria Rhea.
Her robe colour(s) are the alchemical metallic colour(s) of indigo and brown or black.
(Keep in mind, the colours of the robes of the Janae are the the liturgical colours. These are colours that are symbolic of Who They Are in Their Spiritual Essence.)

Saturn & Lead

Madria Rhea’s Indigo Ray is a a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. As in a rainbow. (7)

The colour indigo is named after the indigo dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species.
The first known recorded use of indigo as a colour name in English was in 1289. (55)
Psychics often associate indigo paranormal auras with an interest in religion or with intense spirituality and intuition.


The term is from Old English brún, in origin for any dusky or dark shade of colour. The first recorded use of brown as a colour name in English was in 1000. (56)(57) The Common Germanic adjective *brûnoz, *brûnâ meant both dark colours and a glistening or shining quality, whence burnish. The current meaning developed in Middle English from the 14th century. (58)
Words for the colour brown around the world often come from foods or beverages; in the eastern Mediterranean, the word for brown often comes from the colour of coffee; In Turkish, the word for brown is kahve rengi; in Greek, kafé, in Macedonian, kafeyev. In Southeast Asia, the colour name often comes from chocolate: coklat in Malay; tsokolate in Filipino. In Japan, the word chairo means the colour of tea. (59)

Brown has been used in art since prehistoric times. Paintings using umber, a natural clay pigment composed of iron oxide and manganese oxide, have been dated to 40,000 BC. (60) Paintings of brown horses and other animals have been found on the walls of the Lascaux cave dating back about 17,300 years.

The Ancient Greeks and Romans produced a fine reddish-brown ink, of a colour called sepia, made from the ink of a variety of cuttlefish. This ink was used by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and other artists during the Renaissance, and by artists up until the present time.
In Ancient Rome, brown clothing was associated with the lower classes or barbarians. The term for the plebeians, or urban poor, was “pullati”, which meant literally “those dressed in brown”. (61)

In the Middle Ages, each social class was expected to wear a colour suitable to their station; and grey and brown were the colours of the poor. Russet was a coarse homespun cloth made of wool and dyed with woad and madder to give it a subdued grey or brown shade. By the statute of 1363, poor English people were required to wear russet.

It is said that people who have brown auras are often unethical businessmen who are in business purely for the sake of greed, or people who are just generally greedy and avaricious. (62)


The word black comes from Old English blæc (“black, dark”, also, “ink”), from Proto-Germanic *blakkaz (“burned”), from Proto-Indo-European *bhleg- (“to burn, gleam, shine, flash”), from base *bhel- (“to shine”). More distant cognates include Latin flagrare (“to blaze, glow, burn”), and Ancient Greek phlegein (“to burn, scorch”). In English it means brilliant, saturated or luminous black.

The Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. They began by using charcoal, and then made more vivid black pigments by burning bones or grinding a powder of manganese oxide. (63)

Black is the darkest colour, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic colour, literally a colour without hue, like white (its opposite) and gray. (64) It is often used symbolically or figuratively to represent darkness, while white represents light. (65)
Black and white have often been used to describe opposites; particularly truth and ignorance, good and evil.

In many religious cultures, from Mesoamerica to Oceania to India and Japan, the world was created out of a primordial darkness. (66)

In the social hierarchy of ancient Rome, purple was the colour reserved for the Emperor; red was the colour worn by soldiers (red cloaks for the officers, red tunics for the soldiers); white the colour worn by the priests, and black was worn by craftsmen and artisans. The black they wore was not deep and rich; the vegetable dyes used to make black were not solid or lasting, so the blacks often turned out faded gray or brown.
In the Roman Empire, it became the colour of mourning.

Black symbolized both power and secrecy in the medieval world.

In the 14th century, the status of black began to change. First, high-quality black dyes began to arrive on the market, allowing garments of a deep, rich black. Magistrates and government officials began to wear black robes, as a sign of the importance and seriousness of their positions. It began to be worn by royalty, the clergy, judges and government officials in much of Europe. European rulers saw it as the colour of power, dignity, humility and temperance. By the end of the 16th century, it was the colour worn by almost all the monarchs of Europe and
their courts. (67) It became the colour worn by English romantic poets, businessmen and statesmen in the 19th century, and a high fashion
colour in the 20th century. (68)

According to surveys in Europe and North America, it is the colour most commonly associated with the end, secrets, magic, and elegance.

In the visible spectrum, black is the absorption of all colours.
Black can be defined as the visual impression experienced when no visible light reaches the eye.

In China, the colour black is associated with positive disorder which leads to change and new life.
In Japan, black is associated with mystery, the night, the unknown, the supernatural, the invisible and death.


See also
(This book looks interesting) Stevens, Samantha. The Seven Rays: a Universal Guide to the Archangels. Toronto: Insomniac Press, 2004.
ISBN 1-894663-49-7.



(1) A History of Planets and Metals by Barbara Reimann
(4) C.Leadbetter, A Complete System of Astronomy, 1742.
(5) Sephariel, Cosmic Symbolism, 1912 (quoted by Dennis Elwell, as the earliest source he could find).
(6) Elwell, Astrol. Assoc. Jnl, review of ‘Astrochemistry’, Winter 1984/5 p.54.
4 + 5 + 6 all from

(7) A spectral colour is a colour that is evoked by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light. Every wavelength of visible light is perceived as a spectral colour.
In the mid-1660s, when Newton bought a pair of prisms at a fair near Cambridge, the East India Company had begun importing indigo dye into England, supplanting the homegrown woad as source of blue dye. In a pivotal experiment in the history of optics, the young Newton shone a narrow beam of sunlight through a prism to produce a rainbow-like band of colours on the wall.
First described by Isaac Newton in Optice: Sive de Reflexionibus, Refractionibus, Inflexionibus & Coloribus Lucis Libri Tres, Propositio II, Experimentum VII, edition 1740. Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, and the days of the week. For colours seen by the human eye, the most commonly cited and remembered sequence is Newton’s sevenfold
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, remembered by the mnemonic, Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain (ROYGBIV).

(8) Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 155–56.
(9) Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 158

(10) Varichon, Anne Colors:What They Mean and How to Make Them New York:2006 Abrams Page 138

(12) Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, The World Publishing Company, New York, 1964.
(13) Harper, Douglas (November 2001). “Online Etymology Dictionary”. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
(14) Maerz and Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color New York: McGraw-Hill p. 196
(15) “Sergei Starostin, Turkic etymology”. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
(16) Anne Vachiron (2000), Couleurs – pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples, pp. 210–11.
(17) Gage, John (1993). Colour and Culture – Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction. Thames and Hudson (Page numbers cited
from French translation). pp. 11–27.
(18) Yoon, Hong-Key. The Culture of Feng-Shui in Korea. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7391-1348-8 p. 27

(19) Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th Edition, Oxford University Press.
(20) Webster New World Dictionary, Third College Edition: “Any of a genus (Dianthus) of annual and perennial plants of the pink family with
white, pink or red flowers.; its pale red color.”
(21) “pink, n.⁵ and adj.²”, Oxford English Dictionary Online
(22) The Odyssey, Book XII, translated by Samuel Butler.
(23) “CTCWeb Glossary: R (ratis to ruta)”. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
(24) “Spring is Pink”. SRI Threads. April 4, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
(25) “Season Colour – I Think Spring is Green”. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
(26) The Madonna of the
Pinks on the official National Gallery website
(27) Smithsonian Magazine
When Did Girls Start Wearing Pink?
In 1927, Time magazine printed a chart showing sex-appropriate colors for girls and boys according to leading U.S. stores. In Boston,
Filene’s told parents to dress boys in pink. So did Best & Co. in New York City, Halle’s in Cleveland and Marshall Field in Chicago.
Today’s color dictate wasn’t established until the 1940s, as a result of Americans’ preferences as interpreted by manufacturers and retailers.
“It could have gone the other way”
(28) Stamberg, Susan (April 1, 2014). “Girls Are Taught To ‘Think Pink,’ But That Wasn’t Always So”. NPR. Archived from the original
on 2014-04-15. Retrieved 2014-09-26. a 1918 trade catalog for children’s clothing recommended blue for girls. The reasoning at the time
was that it’s a ‘much more delicate and dainty tone,’ Finamore says. Pink was recommended for boys ‘because it’s a stronger and more
passionate color, and because it’s actually derived from red.’

(29) Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, (1970)
(30) Pastoureau, M., & Cruse, M. I. (2001). Blue: The history of a color p. 64. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
(31) Caesar, The Gallic Wars, V., 14, 2. Cited by Miche Pastourou, p. 178.
(32) Philip Ball, Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Colour, p. 106
(33) Michel Pastoureau, Bleu: Histoire d’une couleur, p. 26
(34) “Your question answered”. Archived from the original on 2006-09-04.
(35) “The Spirit of Notre Dame”. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
(36) “Board Question #31244 | The 100 Hour Board”. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
(37) Numbers 15:38.
(38), the Ptil Tekhelet Organization
(39) Mishneh Torah, Tzitzit 2:1; Commentary on Numbers 15:38.
(40) Numbers Rabbah 14:3; Hullin 89a.
(41) Exodus 24:10; Ezekiel 1:26; Hullin 89a.
(42) Numbers 4:6–12.
(43) Daniel V. Thompson (1956), The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting, Dover Publications, New York (ISBN 0-486-20327-1)
(44) “Suitably Dressed,” the Economist, December 16, 2010.
(45) “Should we not dress girls in pink?”. BBC Magazine. BBC. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2011

(46) C. Michael Hogan. 2010. Calcium. eds. A.Jorgensen, C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the
(47) Dreyfuss, Henry. Symbol Sourcebook. New York: Wiley, 1984. ISBN 0-471-28872-1 p. 239
(48) Cullen, Cheryl. Global Graphics. Gloucester: Rockport Publishers, 2000. ISBN 1-56496-293-8 p. 147
(49) Adams, Melanie; Natasha Raynor (September 19, 1994 – March 12, 2009). “Mars, The Red Planet”. MidLink Magazine. North Carolina
State University. Retrieved 12 April 2010.

(50) With thanks to ArchMatrona (Serene Mother) Ghrian of the Lucienne Deanic Tradition.

(51) Anne Varichon, Couleurs-pigments dans les mains des peuples, p. 144–146
(52) πορφύρα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus

(53) Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English, Third College Edition, (1988)
(54) Eva Heller (2000), Psychologie de la couleur – effets et symboliques, pp. 72–73.

(55) Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197; Color Sample of Indigo: Page 117 Plate 47 Color Sample

(56) first attested in The Metres of Boethius 26. 58, ca. AD 1000: stunede sio brune yd wid odre “One dark wave dashed against the other”.
(57) Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191
(58) His hare [was] like to the nute brun, quen it for ripnes fals dun “his hair was like the nut brown, when for ripeness it falls down”, Cursor M.
18833, ca. AD 1300, cited after OED.
(59) Omniglot- words for colors in different languages.
(60) Varichon, Couleurs – pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples. p. 254.
(61) Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: Effets et symboliques. p. 219
(62) Swami Panchadasi The Human Aura: Astral Colors and Thought Forms Des Plaines, Illinois, USA:1912–Yogi Publications Society Page

(63) Michel Pastoureau, Noir – Histoire d’une couleur, p. 34.
(64) “Definition of achromatic”. Free Dictionary. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
(65) Heller, Eva (2009). Psychologie de la couleur – Effets et symboliques. Pyramyd (French translation). pp. 105–26.
(66) Stefano Zuppi, Color in Art, pp. 268–69.
(67) Michel Pastoureau, Noir – Histoire d’une couleur, pp. 121–25.
(68) Heller, Eva, Psychologie de la couleur – effets et symboliques (2009), pp. 105–26.
(69) Eva Heller (2000), Psychologie de la couleur – effets et symboliques, pp. 105–27.